It is unfortunate the use of excessive force and forcefully dispersing peaceful gathering organized by distressed parents on May 16, 2021 at Daljir Dahsoon in Mogadishu Somalia, demanding the government on whereabouts of their young men who were sent to Eritrea for military training. Parents and relatives have been continuously addressing their complaints through the local media and social media networks, demanding that the government give an explanation on their whereabouts, but government turns a deaf ear to their pleas and remained silent about the matter.
It is also unfortunate that journalists covering protests were also attacked by the security forces, beating a female radio journalist and confiscated her equipment, according to a statement released by the Somali Journalists Syndicate (SJS).
Under the constitution of Federal Government of Somalia, people have a right to organize and participate in meetings, and to demonstrate and protest peacefully, without requiring prior authorization. These freedoms are suppressed; journalists are threatened, harassed, beaten, subjected to arbitrary arrests continuously.
We call on the Federal Government of Somalia to respect, protect and fulfill the right of demonstrators to peacefully protest, in line with the country’s constitution and International laws. We also call on the government to answer and convince the parents, relatives and friends whose loved ones are missing for years and have not heard of them since they were taken to Eritrea.
Somali people who are already struggling with the health and economic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, are also distressed by another pandemic of mobile money scams, making the country’s largest financial service distrustful. Mobile money is the primary access point to financial services in Somalia with transactions worth about $2.7 billion a month according to the World Bank Report 2018.
Mobile money service are widely used and 73 percent of the population over the age of 16 use mobile money services as estimated by the World Bank Report in 2017. Taking advantage of this, the remittance companies are increasingly partnering with mobile money operators to transfer funds directly to recipients’ mobile money accounts, facilitating further the vast remittance flows which are critical to most Somali households.
The use of mobile money and its transactions boomed more than ever during COVID-19 pandemic and even humanitarian agencies increasingly favoured mobile money services for assisting the most vulnerable people in rural and remote areas of the country. While mobile money services are massively praised during the lockdown, something look like to be organized scams have troubled the users.
As matter take on social media pervasively, there is no official figures showing the scale and how much money lost to scams, but preliminary data shows an increase of mobile money scams from March 2020 when the COVID-19 emergency started. One of the three largest mobile money operators recorded more than 16,000 mobile money scams in a month and the informative officials even believe the figure to be far greater than this and that the trend is twice higher than before the COVID-19 emergency started.
Mobile money scams come in many forms and scammers have been using different tactics to trick and fall innocent victims into their trap, the most known tactics are detailed below.
Fake mobile money transfer transactions
Scammers increasingly used to send a fake mobile money transfer notification to the victims which looks like to be the ordinary one to trick unsuspecting victims. As soon as scammers send such fake notifications to the victim’s mobile number, they call the victim saying they just transferred money by mistake and that was meant for sick mother in the hospital or other fabricated emergency matter. Although the mobile money services have unique transaction ID and the sum up of the new balance are to be the previous balance and the new amount received, scammers pressure the victim with endless calling to hold off a chance to make an authenticity check.
Badri Kozar, a prominent journalist based in Hargeisa posted on his Facebook page a story of a victim of a mobile money scam in Hargeisa where the scammer sent a fake mobile money transaction notification to the victim showing that the victim received $100 and his balance is $486. Immediately after receiving the fake notification, the victim received a call from a man claiming that he sent $100 by mistake and requesting to return $90 and keep the remaining as reward. Kozar and the victim both alerted the public about the scams.
This tactic remained the scammers’ biggest approach to trick innocent people, mainly targeting the business people or individuals who are super busy or unable to make an authenticity check when they come across in such situations. Nearly 69 percent of Somali mobile money users have experienced such scams according to a recent survey of more than 3,200 persons by Bareedo Platform Somalia. The survey also shows that women in business who are mainly financially illiterate and dominating the country’s Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to be the hardest hit groups.
Impersonating public figures
Scammers also used to call the victim pretending to a someone the victim knows well and likely to trust, and telling that they are in an emergency situation such as in hospital or airport and need an urgent sum of money. This kind of masquerade scams led many innocent victims to fall into a trap and lose a lot of money to scammers who are increasingly employing sophisticated and persuasive means to try and get what they want from these unsuspecting victims.
This tactic devastated friends and relatives of some popular public figures and many of them such as members of parliament, religious figures, Police officers, and businessmen who were impersonated by the scammers, have come forward alerting friends and relatives to be aware of the scammers using their names to steal money from friends and relatives.
Dr. Sh. Ahmed Nuur, a religious scholar alerted the public about scammers who have been impersonating well-known local religious figures to scam innocent people taking advantage of the love and respect people have with their religious figures. Dr. Nuur told the public that these scammers have already scammed a large number of innocent people including students, teachers, and management of some popular religious teaching schools and colleges in Somalia.
Impersonating aid agencies
The internally displaced and vulnerable rural communities who are dependent on aid in different parts of Somalia are also hit and targeted by the scammers. Scammers call innocent victims pretending to be from aid agencies well-known by the victims and then asking for registration and facilitation fees. These kinds of scams existed years insignificantly, but re-emerged recently taking advantage of the widely adopted mobile money cash distributions as the safest and quickest way of reaching and assisting the vulnerable people in the rural and insecure areas of the country.
For the latest instances, National Commission for Refugees & IDPs ( NCRI) of Federal Government of Somalia issued a public alert on February 24, 2021, urging residents of Mogadishu to beware of a recently uncovered scammers defrauding the displaced people in Mogadishu.
Not only NCRI, but several other governmental agencies in different parts of the country have also issued similar alerts.
As the country is facing severe humanitarian crises and political instability now followed by the COVID-19 crisis, mobile money service is becoming more important than before for the starving people in the country. Mobile money service is also a safer way to support the most vulnerable people in rural areas, especially now during the COVID-19 pandemic according to the FAO Somalia, saying they have transferred USD 15.4 million to 429,300 people safely from mid-March when the COVID-19 emergency started in Somalia.
Impersonating utility companies
Although this is not prevalent compared to those mentioned above, but scammers defrauded innocent victims by pretending to be a bill collectors from the local utility company. Scammers call the innocent victims by asking them to pay owed bills to their mobiles or will cut the service. These fraudulent activities particularly affected the utility companies still dependent on individuals for collection of bills from the clients.
ENEE, a public grid company in Bosaso is one of the utilities companies impersonated by scammers and defrauded innocent people in Bosaso. After such fraudulent activities reported by the clients, ENEE issued a public alert informing the public about imposters and to be aware of such scams and ask IDs if approached or called.
Why mobile money scams are on the rise?
The mobile money scams are facilitated by the following factors:-
The mobile money services exist and continue to grow without any regulatory framework, making the system a fragile. For this reason, there is no even a set of procedures or individual identification systems required when opening the service from the telecommunication operators, who are absolutely responsible and run the service with vast sums in circulation without sufficient oversight and control of the concerned government authorities.
Limited public awareness rising about the scams lead the unsuspecting users to be less vigilant and in some instances, they are not aware of reporting procedures. In addition to that, some users also blame the mobile money service providers for practices that does not offer sufficient guarantees to them, slowness and limited punitive actions against scammers when informed about scam transaction and requested to reverse it.
The mobile money operators concentrate more on competition than setting up sufficient mitigatory controls to prevent these fraudulent activities from happening.
Limited collaboration between the service providers and law enforcement institution followed by lack of resources and training of law enforcement are also another factor holding off prosecution of scammers.
The mobile money service providers are reluctant to disclose scam data, fearing of loss of reputation and trust. This makes the matter undisguised despite of the mounting outrageous stories widely circulated and debated across the social media networks.
What can be done?
The scammers will continue to grow taking advantage of the expanding mobile money market and absence of regulation both in relation to mobile money services and associated risks. Furthermore, these fraudulent activities not only threat to the mobile money market, but may add a significant threat to the country’s fragile security and stability if not addressed as soon as possible. While further studies and dialogues are open and needed to find concrete and sustainable way forward, the following solutions are helpful for the time being:-
Adoption of regulatory framework is urgently needed to maintain the security, reliability and sustainability of the industry. Similarly, the third Somalia Economic Update published by the World Bank provides concrete recommendations on introducing mobile money regulation that can boost a secure system for widespread financial inclusion.
The law enforcement institutions need to get the capacity and resources necessary for monitoring and investigating scam and fraud activities to bring criminals to the justice.
The mobile money providers and other users of their platforms, including banks and remittances need to implement mitigatory controls in adherence of financial and user security requirements. The GSMA’s Managing the Risk of Fraud in Mobile can be a helpful to any risk management strategy in mobile money, when combined with the ground facts.
The mobile money service providers and law enforcement agencies also need to form a close collaboration to prevent the scam and fraud activities.
The law enforcement institutions, mobile money providers, users of their platforms such as banks, utility companies and humanitarian agencies need to undertake continued public awareness raising and teaching their clients about the scams and how and where they can report to.
As of April 11, 2021, Somalia has recorded 12,406 confirmed COVID-19 cases, including 618 deaths, since March 2020. People aged 60 years and older account for more than 80 per cent of the total deaths. 300,000 doses of COVID-19 vaccines arrived in Somalia in March 16, 2021; 195,000 doses were delivered to Mogadishu, 40,000 to Garowe and 65,000 to Hargeisa according to UNICEF. Additionally, UAE delivered 10,000 doses to Puntland in March 2021 and also China brought around 200,000 doses of their vaccine in Mogadishu waiting for redistribution.
The COVID-19 vaccines arrived in a critical time as Somalia is now experiencing a new wave of the epidemic, ten times deadlier than the first wave in 2020. This is the largest increase in a month since May-June of 2020 when the epidemic peaked at between 500–600 cases a week in Mogadishu, and even now expanded to Galkacyo, Hargeisa, Burco, Bosaso and Erigavo, cities with sizeable population. In addition to this, there is a critical shortage of medical oxygens in main hospitals throughout the country, catching the attention of public with continued condemnation against the health authorities for their poor handling and carelessness.
As per the announcements made by the national health authorities, this first consignment of vaccines will be used to vaccinate an estimated 300,000 frontline workers, elderly and people with chronic health conditions and also Police and Custodial Corps who are working for community on daily basis. These special priorities have been taken to ensure health and other essential services continue to function and deaths among people at risk, especially the elderly, reduced. The question is how far the vaccination goes on? What is the level of uptake?
Concern over uneven distribution
The 300,000 doses delivered in Somalia in March 16, 2021 were distributed to 6 members states and Mogadishu; 100 to Mogadishu, 65,000 to Somaliland, 40,000 to Puntland, 30,000 to Galmudug, 30,000 to Jubaland, 20,000 to South West and 15,000 to Hirshabelle. This allocation raised concerns over uneven distribution of vaccines at national level in the first days and even continued within local levels. For instance in Puntland, people voiced their concern over uneven distribution of vaccines within Puntland; for example Bosaso received more allocation than combination of Sanaag and Sool regions.
Uptake of COVID-19 vaccines slowed by misinformation
As COVID-19 has spread across Somalia, so has misinformation marring uptake of the vaccination. The first shipment, Oxford/AstraZeneca arrived in a time of some countries temporarily suspended use of this vaccine after a small number of recipients developed blood clots. This has been the biggest factor that fuelled the misinformation and myths against the vaccination, thus contributing to slow intake of the vaccines in particular the elderly who are among the first target groups, planned to receive vaccination in the first round.
Furthermore, there are other negative speculations saying that vaccines contain the live virus that causes COVID-19, which means that COVID-19 vaccine can make the recipient sick with COVID-19. These are propped up by death of several persons who have died after taking the vaccine, although some of them have already had the virus.
People are less equipped with the tools necessary to identify and prevent the spread of misinformation and fake news. The public awareness rising, sharing clear content and fact-based advice with the public, to fight circulating conspiracies and misinformation is inadequate, thus leaving all these negative rumours to flourish and making acceptance of the vaccine difficult.
Poor follow up and monitoring of side effects
The COVID-19 vaccines have been developed with unprecedented speed, because of the pandemic and the need to get these vaccines out quickly to save lives, and emergency use authorisations have been given to these vaccines, which means that they are still under observation. There are still systems in place in countries that are following up people that are recording and reporting any serious adverse events or other events. There have been several persons died after taking the vaccine and some who got severe complications, and all these are happening while the national health authorities in Somalia are taking limited monitoring for any unexpected side effects following COVID-19 vaccine use.
Uncertainty of second dose
Most of the vaccines that are being developed need at least two doses, and two different types of COVID-19 vaccines; Oxford/AstraZeneca and Sinovac, are delivered in Somalia. The interval between the doses depends on which vaccine and the health authorities were required to inform public about when the second dose is due, whether two doses from two different manufacturers can be taken and assurance of availability of such vaccines. Although WHO recommended second dose to be taken with the same vaccine, people uncertain whether the current two types of COVID-19 vaccines will be available when the second dose is due.
Inadequate prevention measures
With the increasing caseload of COVID-19, little prevention measures were taken due to fear of that implementation would be less effect; a scenario learned from lockdowns in 2020. There have been measures limited to closure of schools implemented in Mogadishu and Somaliland, while all other life routines are going normal; coffee bars and restaurants are full of people and social gatherings are unchanged without observing any social distancing or wearing protective materials.
The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect Bareedo’s policies.
The use of internet and technology experienced an exponential growth in Somalia, with more than 2 million Internet users and the cheapest Internet in Africa. Young people who make up over 75 percent of Somali population use the Internet more than ever before and some begin to accessing the Internet in the early years prior to starting school. The onset of COVID-19 pandemic and closure of schools as part of the measures imposed to contain the spread of the pandemic has exacerbated the use of the Internet by the young people. Some Internet Providers eased the cost of Internet for students during COVID-19, which also boosted the affordability. Many education institutions have migrated to online classes to enable learning to continue while COVID-19 preventive measures are still in place, and this puts many young people to rely on the Internet more than before.
Despite of using Internet for attending virtual classrooms, video calling, online gaming and social media, it is also a source of entertainment for young people living in a country where the vital recreational sectors are unlimited. The Internet also offers an opportunity for talented youth members share their talents with their peers which is a great way of overlooking painful feelings or troubling life situations in the country.
While more young people make their way into the Internet, many parents feel uncertain about the actions and experiences their teenage children have on the Internet, thus causing worry and concern. Therefore, this article looks at why parents worry in relation to their teenagers’ extended use of the Internet and also presents the relevant recommendations that can be peace of mind for parents in order to maintain the country’s growing digital transformation.
Data collected by Bareedo Platform’s Digital Help Desk in 2020 shows that 89 percent of the parents in Somalia are worried about their teenagers’ extended use of Internet and in particular, they believe that this given a rise to safety concerns, loss of appetite to education and miss out of real life experiences. These are well founded by similar concerns continuously raised by the schools, authorities and the religious figures. For instance, the Governor of Banadir region who is also the mayor of Mogadishu, the capital city of Somalia, blamed teenager’s addictive use of TikTok for their mass failure of national examinations for the school year of 2019/2020 in remarks he made at a graduation ceremony on September 7, 2020.
What risks do young people face in the Internet?
More than seven in 10 Somalis own a mobile phone and mobile Internet are popular among youth in Somalia with the cheapest rates in Africa. Young people spend too much time on Internet with less knowledge of the dangers they may face and how to deal them accordingly. For this reason, they usually come across negative online experiences including, but are not limited to, exposure to material with pornographic or violent content, and subjection to online threats and bullying. It is a very common to the young people to over-share their personal information which brings immediate risks of sexual grooming and stalking, in particular among young women. Digital Help Desk recorded a total of 141 cases of young women groomed online in 2020. This is a data recorded from Puntland state only, and data throughout Somalia could be alarming. In some instances, young men face a risk of radicalisation and recruitment for illegal activities by the terrorist groups fighting in the country.
Parents worry girls more than boys
Data recorded by Digital Help Desk indicates that 90 percent of the parents worry girls more than boys. In some instances, they even link their concern to the growing offline sexual violence against women and girls in Somalia. While the boys and girls are supposed to use Internet equally, there is a pandemic of online gender-based violence turning the lifeline of the internet into a hostile space for women and girls in Somalia, according to a small survey conducted by Bareedo Platform in February 2020 which found that 49 percent of young women attending educational institutions face constant harassment in the online platforms due to their extended use of internet for educational purposes. The surveyed young women said that they continually face online harassments of blackmailing, non-consensual access and distribution of personal information, impersonation, defamation, sexist abuse, intimidation, hacking of personal account, recording without consent, identity theft, sexual harassment or cyber stalking.
Munasar Maxamed, a prominent Somali journalist living in exile in Sweden unveiled organized online gangs who build up a trusting and emotional relationship with young women in Mogadishu for purpose of sexual exploitation, gratification or abuse.
As a result of schools being closed, young women spent more time online than usual and sadly, victims of online abuse were prevailing throughout 2020. The most popular case was a video showing the private parts of a young woman named “Cayuuni” posted and distributed in the social media without her consent in July 2020 that sparked heating discussions among Somalis in the social media platforms.
While the gender-based violence against women and girls are prevalent in Somalia, these live examples clearly show how they are not even spared in the Internet.
Why are these prevalent in Somalia?
The awareness rising about the secure and safe use of the Internet is not common in Somalia and young people are not taught in schools and at home. For this reason, they may not always think about the consequences of their actions while they are online, which exposes them into negative online experiences. Furthermore, parents’ own Internet skills, experience of using the Internet, and attitudes toward the Internet are what raising their worries and concerns. Data found 66 percent of the parents to have limited Internet skills and believe negative attitudes toward the Internet. The parents who have experience of using the Internet even said they do not have time to monitor what their teens are going every single second they are online.
Young people do not often speak about their online experiences and additionally, online violence is not perceived as a serious form of violence compared to offline violence and problems that are common in the country. These are also what mainly contributed in the worry of parents and push many of them to keep their teenage children, in particular girls and young women, out of Internet connection and use of mobile phones as a form of punishment or reduce risk of harm online.
What can be peace of mind for parents?
The Internet is an excellent educational and recreational resource for children and young people. They need the Internet to research information for school projects or attending online classes more than before in these days. For this reason, parents need to learn everything they can about the Internet, so they can understand the benefits of the Internet and make informed decisions when it comes their teenagers’ use of the Internet. Furthermore, there are plenty of resources and tools available globally, which can give guidelines and best practices for parents to keep their teens safe online. On top of that, parents also need to talk to their teenagers about their Internet use, teach them about online dangers to make sure they have time for other valuable activities.
Schools need to include digital safety lessons and awareness rising in their teaching programs to educate children and young people on the risks they may encounter when using the Internet and how they can deal with them. The education authorities, schools and other relevant stakeholders need to work on digitalization of education and teaching system, taking advantage of the growing Internet connectivity and technological developments in Somalia.
The Learning Passport, a digital remote learning platform lunched by UNICEF and the Government of Puntland in Somalia in July 2020 in Garowe to enable children access educational content both online and offline from their homes is a noticeable step forward that can be extended to whole Somalia.
Translation of the existing Internet safety resources in Somali language is indispensable that can help a lot for public and parents who find difficult to use such resources due to language barrier. Finally and on top of that, the government, tech companies and other relevant stakeholders need to cooperate to promote Internet and contribute to the development of a safe and empowering online environment for young people.
Somalia is the world’s most dangerous country for reporters, according to the Committee to Protect Journalists. On a day-to-day-basis, the online harassment and censorship against journalists and social rights activists in Somalia is on the rise in a time most of the journalists depend on the Internet and digital communications for research, interaction and news distribution.